The Laboraty or, school of arts, containg a large collection of valuable secrets, experiemtns and manual operations in arts and manufactures, highly useful to book-binders, plasterers, artists and to workers in metals in general and in plasters of paris, woor, ivory bone, horn and other materials.
Gilders, goldsmiths, pewterers, jewellers, dyers, joiners, enamellers, cuttlers, japanners, compiled originally by G. Smith
Sixth Edition [words in gothic],
with a great number of additional receipts, corrections, and amendments
a complete treatise on fire-workjs and the art of short hand writing.
Illustrated with engravings.
Printed by C. Whitingham ;
For H.D. Symonds, J. Wallis and Wynne and Scholey.
Paternoster -row; and yernorand hood, Poultry
THE SIXTH EDITION.
arts have so necessary a dependance THEon each other, that it would he an use¬
less task to endeavour to point out their advan¬tage to mankind. Daily experience, and in¬deed the mere operation of our senses, confirm
the impossibility of detailing the utility which must result from the publication of human in¬
ventions. The rapid progress of the physical sciences has been the occasion of much labour to the learned, whose works have been often rendered useless by the appearance of new Volumes, and has given rise to many compila¬
tions and abridgments. But for these compres¬sions of matter into reasonable bounds, in the forms of Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias, the diffusion of knowledge would be less exten¬sive ; because the price would be too high for
a 2 the
IV PREFACE. the generality of readers, and discoveries would chance to remain scattered and uncollected.
But whilst the succession of every year may have thrown a light upon the principles of many facts which were before unknown to us, we should take heed that many of the facts themselves do not escape us. The history of former ages has furnished the wofiil certainty of the loss of many arts, which the unwearied attention of succeeding times may be long in restoring. Had the simple manual of every art been recorded, without attempting to be¬wilder by the addition of theory, we should probably be in the possession of what we may wistfully require in vain. Of these valuable secrets which have been lost, the one of ren¬dering glass malleable, is alone sufficient to claim our sorrow.
The original plan and intention of the work which is now announced to the Public, was to disseminate, in a reasonable way, what had been collected at great cost and expence ; such as the secret methods of working which were practised by artists in their several employ¬ments, and various other valuable receipts. —
With the same view, this new edition appears, which is no fewer than the sixth from its first publication.
Why a work of so distant a date is still held
in such great request, is owing to the reasons assigned above, that it is a repository of many operations which are employed at this very time, free from theoretical descriptions, and there¬fore intelligible to the meanest capacity. — Moreover, the terms of art, and the names of the several ingredients, are conformable to those in common use, and such as on enquiry
at druggists shops will be known and sold under those titles.
A work of this kind is ever useful, although it be not adapted to the reading of philosophi¬cal students ; for unless some such publications are afloat, philosophers themselves, in distant periods, would be deprived of the very mate¬
rials of their own labours : it is by the esta¬blished custom of tradesmen following the occupation of their fathers, that the manual arts have been preserved in the East.
Many of the passages in this edition will be found entirely expunged, by comparing it with former ones : many of them are abridg¬ed ; most of them are corrected ; and a variety of new matter is added. Sometimes whole
paragraphs, and even chapters, have been transposed ; which has been purposely done,
to arrange it in a series more orderly and con¬venient.
venient. The chapter on Fire-works, for iii^
stance, here begins the work, because it forms one of the earliest amusements of youth, and will be likely to employ their first attention to experiment; thence, gradually acquiring a ma¬nual expertness, they will be led to undertake more elaborate operations, and be initiated in a fondness for philosophyt For the retention of some peculiarities, such as the usual and ordi¬nary appellations of drugs and chemicals, in lieu of modern philosophical names, a fair reason has been assigned ; and, indeed, to employ new terms would totally defeat the intention of the
which is compiled for a valuable class of
men, whose operations must be couched in their own technical termst Quickening is a singular expression to be employed in gilding; but wa¬ter-gilders are accustomed to the phrase, and employ it constantlyt Black-lead pencils are also known to every class of society, inde¬pendent of artists who are more acquainted with their use ; yet it is a notorious fact that they have not a particle of lead in their compo- sitiont* Some terms, then, cannot be corrected, unless a display of knowledge be preferred to the more valuable requisite of being intelligible*
* What was supposed, by the old chemists, to be black¬lead, is now well-known, to be a compound of iron; called carbure of iron, in modern chemical languaget
It must be confessed, indeed, that a number
of the receipts might be greatly amended, and the processes of many of them be curtailed and cheapened; but it has been thought better to
retain all, except such as are impracticable at the first glance, and to make additions to the original stock ; for this reason, that many of them are still in request by workmen, whose time is principally busied in effects, and are lit¬tle observant and anxious of the causes of such effects. Till, therefore, some able chemist, whose time is at his command, will condescend
to leave the chase after new discoveries, and give the condensed hiftory, the rationale, and im¬proved manual of the operative arts, we mull:
be content to offer such as is known, and add occasionally (as will be found in this Edition) fresh receipts as fresh matter is produced. By the addition of new processes, in lieu of en¬tirely expunging the old, another advantage
will accrue —that the methods of working for-
merly known, will still be in preservation, whereby a basis is left for improvement, by the ingenious, as the theory of the arts is gradually unfolding. The just and obvious objection to
obsolete experiments therefore, in some mea¬
sure removed and hoped, that the large class of young people, whom these recreations
concern, may find the amusement and instruc¬tion which it is so much their interest to cul¬tivate.
Before a final close is put to the above ob-> scrvations, it may be proper to remark, that a, useful treatise has been introduced, in this edi¬tion, on the practice of Short-hand writing. "When a quick and easy mode of committing cither our own thoughts, or those of others, to the safe-guard of manuscript, is attainable, no one surely will forego the application of a few hours to the occasional practice of the art! A thousand thoughts which daily strike us may be thus instantly preserved from destruction, to the future benefit of ourselves, and the probable benefit of posterity : and if our ideas be, at first, crude and undigested, which will be too frequently the case in sudden flights of imagi¬nation, they will be recorded in symbols of more than ordinary usage, of course, free from observation till matured by time.
The few explanatory notes, marked Ed. are, by the Editor.
( ix )
Contents to the first volume.
TNIFitIrCe IAL 2
Of sulphur, or brimstone 3
How to break or granulate sulphur ib.
To combine oil with sulphur 5
— make artificial camphor, and its oil ib.
— make moulds for rockets ib.
— prepare cases for swarmers, or rockets 7
Preliminary observations in preparing the charges for rockets;
and to order their fires of various colours 8
Charges for land swarmers, or small rockets 10
A general charge for rockets of two or three ounces H
Charges for rockets of four, five, and six ounces ib.
water rockets ib.
For eight, nine, arid twelve ounce rockets ib.
one, and one and a half pound rockets 12
two and three pound rockets ib.
— four or rive pound rockets 13
six, eight, or nine pounders ib.
— ten ami twelve pounders ib.
— fourteen, fifteen, and sixteen pounders 14>
— eighteen or twenty pounders ib.
— thirty, forty, and fifty pounders ib.
sixty, eighty, and a hundred pounders ib.
To bore the rockets, or ram them over the piercer ib.
For garnishing of rockets 15
flow to proportion the rocket-poles and sticks 16
Rockets without sticks 16 Of girandel chests; how, and with what, the rockets are
tired therein 17
Their composition 18
Of rockets that run upon lines, or ropes, from one place to another ib.
Charges for the line rockets 19
How to join two rockets to one another; the one to burn in
the water, and the other suddenly to fly up into the air 20 How to make water-rockets, water-brands, water-cats, wa¬
ter-ducks, &c. that turn themselves in the water 21 Charges for water-rockets 23
tumbling water-crackers ib.
■ water-cats lb.
Some general remarks upon rockets 25
Observations for discovering defective rockets ib.
Of rocket-flyers, and the manner of charging them 26
— fire-wheels , 27 — tourbillons 28
Charges for fire-flyers and wheels, of four, five, and six
ounce rockets 30
For wheels of one pound rockets 31
one and a half, and two pound rockets ib.
three and four pound rockets ib.
To make single and double cartouches, or boxes, tubes, stars, sparks, &c ib.
Double boxes, or cartouches 33
Another sort of lire tubes ib.
The following stars are of a mote yellow cast, inclining to
Sparks are prepared thus ib.
Single tubes, or cases 36
Another fire tube 37
Of salvo's 3S
Charges for cartouches, or boxes , ib.
hie tubes ib.
A preservative for wood against fire ib.
The manner of preparing, and making letters and names in
fire- works 39
Charges for burning letters with cases - 4 1 To order and preserve leading-tires, trains, and quick-matches ib. Charges for fuzees, or leading-matches 42 Of water-balls ib.
How to charge a water-globe with many crackers 44
prepare a water-mortar, or water pump, with se¬veral tubes 45
— charge a large water-globe with several little ones, and with crackers 46
To prepare the water bee-hive, or bee-swarm, both single and double 47
How to prepare a water-globe, on the outside, with running rockets 48
To prepare water-globes with single or double ascending rockets ib.
Charges for single water-globes 49
double water-globes 50
riferous, or perfumed water-balls 51
The ampositioBs for, them ib.
The manner, of preparing the melted stu .. .. 52
— cold melted stuff ib.
To pre ibe which burns like star, and leaps about
both on land and water 53
— charge globes, which leap on land, with iron and paper
How the globes, discharged out of mortar, are made and
Fo prepare the light balls, proper to be used at bonfires ... 55
paste for stars and sparks 56
To project globes from mortar, and the quantity of pow¬der required for that purpose 57
fixed sun, with transparent face 58
Explanation of plate 00
Form and dimensions of furnace 62
Use of the furnace 64
Of lutes 67
variety of curious and valuable experiments on Gold and Silver; shewing the method of testing, refining, sepa¬rating, allaying, and toughening those metals; together with other receipts, for gilding. &c 69
Of gold 71
Method of testing gold by cupellation used also in testing
of silver 73
Of separating gold from silver 74
Parting of gold from silver, by solution ib.
in the dry way 76
Purification of gold by antimony ib.
Of silver 77
Purification of silver by nitre 7S
To prepare crucible, so as not to contract any gold though
be for several hours in the greatest heat 79
Other receipts for cements 80
To separate gold and silver out of the sweepings 81
the gold from gilt copper ib.
Another method ib.
To separate copper from silver, or any other allay 82
— extract the silver out of a ring that is thick gilded, so as
the gold may remain intire : a curious secret ib.
— make brittle gold malleable ib.
silver that is brittle, pliable 83
— give gold, silver, or other metals, a quick fusion ib.
— try whether granulated silver contains any gold 84
— amalgamate gold, or to mix it with mercury, which is of
use to gilders ib.
Gilding upon silver, brass, copper, andiron ib.
A particular secret to gild silver to the greatest perfection ... 85
Another advantageous manner of gilding on silver ib.
A particular method of gilding, which may be done in a mo-
ment, better than with quicksilver ib.
Gilding after the Grecian manner 86
The true Italian gilding ib.
To deaden quicksilver for gilding 87
— boil silver white ib.
A gold powder 87
Another for cold gilding 88
powder to gild with ib.
A quickening water" 89
Another water-gilding upon silver ib.
A water which will give silver a gold colour 90
A method to work a cup, one side gold and the other silver ib.
To adorn gold, silver, or brass, with embellishments of glass 91
Of heightening the colour of gold and gilt works ib.
Gilding wax, used for gold, or gilded work ib.
To give gold a high colour 92
Nuremberg gilding-wax ib.
To make all metals malleable 93
How to quicken brass for gilding ib.
Of several gold colours, whereby gold, or gilt work, after it
has been heightened with gilding- wax, receives its pro-
per colour ib.
A silver gold-colour, or a colour for gilt silver ib.
— green gold-colour ib.
— French gold-colour 9 4
— line gold-colour ib.
Another gold-colour ib.
A green gold-colour ib.
— white colour for gold <>j
To colour an old gold chain as if it were new ib.
A green colour for gold chains ib.
To give gold a high and line colour ib.
Another line colour for gold 96
To bring pale gold to an high colour ] ib.
— make silver yellow throughout, and to give it the colour
of go! d ib.
A water to give any metal a gold-colour i*7
Another water wherewith one may tinge any metal of a gold colour. A curious secret ifa.
To colour gold ib.
— give gold a fine and high colour ib.
gilded work a line colour 93
— brighten spots in gilding ib.
— give old silver-lace, or trimmings, the beauty and colour
of new ib.
Of the hell, or helling of gold 99
To hell gold, or gilt work ib.
How to lake off the gold from gilt silver tankards or cups ... 100 Another method ib.
An improved method to take off the gilding from silver 101
How to get the gold out of aqua-fortis ib. To give silver utensils a lustre ib. — separate gold from gilded silver, by cementation 102 Of several sorts of solder for gold and silver ib. Filings-solder for siUer chain-work ib.
A solder for silver ib.
Another for coarse silver 103
silver solder ib.
Of good solder for gold ib.
The' manner and way of soldering gold or silver ib. To solder a ring set with stones 104
A powder tor soldering, equal to borax ib,.
To melt in a moment several sorts of metals, over a table ... 105
Another manner of doing it ib.
To make aurum sophisticum, or mimick gold ib.
To make a curious yellow-mixed metal, resembling gold,
and which may be drawn into tine wire ib.
Another method to make a metal resembling gold 107
To make brass 108
— silver copper, or brass ib.
Another way 10.9
What metal are most proper to incorporate with silver ib.
To silver brass, in lire 110
A powder to silver copper or brass with, by rubbing it with the finger or thumb ib.
A silvering on copper . . ib.
To silver copper, or brass, bv boiling it
— boil brass, like silver ib.
— silver copper, brass, steel, or iron, so as not to except it be made red hot ib.
— silver all sorts of metals 113
The art of Enamelling in Ordinary, and the method of pro¬paring the Colours ; the art of painting in enamel ; curious instructions how to make artificial pearls; of doublets and foils, and the manner of colouring them ; the art of counterfeiting precious stones, with other rare
secrets 1 13
Of enamelling in ordinary ; and of preparing the enamel-
colours .» ib.
To prepare the flux for enamel-colours 1 14
Another sort of flux, -which is very soft ib.
A green colour ib.
Dark green J15
Yellow colour ib.
A high yellow ib.
Brimstone colour ib.
A black colour ib.
A good red 1 ]<i
good red ib.
Blue colours ib.
Green ] 17
Grass green ib.
Brown colours ib.
Purple colour , ib.
Hair colour ib.
Fawn colour ib.
Carnation colour 118
A steel red for enamel ib.
Of the art of painting on enamel ib.
To prepare the principal matter for enamel colours 120
t— make enamel of a milk-white colour 121
A turcoise blue enamel 122
— fine blue enamel 123
— green enamel ib.
— black enamel 124
<— velvet- black enamel ib.
— purple-colour enamel ib.
— violet enamel 125
— yellow enamel ib.
An excellent red enamel, of a very splendid ruby colour ... ib.
A rose colour enamel 126
— fine purple ib.
-!— good red enamel colour 127
— flux for red enamel 128
Some general observations ib.
Of artificial pearls „ 130
To imitate fine oriental pearls ib.
Another way to make artificial pear's 132
• method Uk
To form large pearls out of small ones, as directed by Korn
•— make of small pearls a fine necklace of large ones 135
Best method of imitating pearls 135
To clean pearls when of a foul colour ib. — blanch and cleanse pearls 137
Other methods used in blanching pearls ib.
Of doublets 138
Method of making doublets 139
The crystal glue of Milan 141
Instructions concerning foils, or metallic leaves, which are laid under precious stones 142,
Hoy, to polish and colour foils 143
To colour foils of a green colour, for an emerald 145
— colour the foils of a ruby colour ib.
The colour of an amethyst ib.
How foils are to be mixed with copper and other metals ... ib. Another way US
The art of imitating precious stones, or of making artificial
The way of preparing natural crystal 147
To counterfeit an opal 148
— make a fair emerald ib.
A deeper emerald 149
To make a paste for imitating an Oriental topaz ib. — make an artificial chrysolite 150
— counterfeit a beryl, or aqua marina ib.
A sapphire colour ib.
Another, more beautiful, and nearer the Oriental ib. deeper coloured sapphire 151
To make a paste for an Oriental garnet ib. Anotiier, deeper garnet ib.
■ process for counterfeiting of precicu, stones ib.
An approved composition 152
To melt these compositions ; and how to tinge and finish
your work : 153¬— make a sapphire ib.
To prepare crocus martis with vinegar ib.
by a reverberatory fire ib.
— make a fine hyacinth 155
The opal ib.
Of crystal ib.
Bartholomew Korndorfer's secret to make a diamond of a
natural crystal ib.
How to make a diamond out of a sapphire, according to
Porta's description 156
TO make a fine amethyst > j.57
ruby, or a line hyacinth ib.
Another artificial ruby 158
To make a ruby balass ib.
— harden Bohemian diamonds ib.
Plain directions for polishing the counterfeits, and also natu-
ral gems 159
A powder for polishing soft stones 160
The art of Making Glass ; with the art of painting, and making impressions upon glass, and of laying thereon gold or silver; together with the method of preparing the colours for Potters-work, or delft-ware 161
Of glass ib.
Materials of glass 162
To prepare ashes for making glass 163
Description of a calcar 165
Another method of preparing ashes ib.
To make the glass frit 166
Description of a glass-furnace 167
A smaller furnace, for glass, and other experiments 168
Instruments for making of glass 16y
Of the sorts of glass 170
Compositions for white and crystal glass ib.
flint glass 171
A harder glass than the foregoing 172
To calcine brass, which in glass makes a sky or sea-green ... ib. To calcine brass after another manner, for a transparent
red colour, or a yellow 173
General observations for all colours ib.
To make glass of lead, which is the fittest for receiving of
most colours 171
How to work the said glass ib.
Blue glass ib.
t\ chrysolite glass ib.
A sapphire green glass 175
To make fine green glass of tin ib.
a ruby-coloured glass ib.
The ait of glass in miniature 176
is performed by the flame of a lamp ib.
How to lay silver on glass utensils, plates, dishes, salts, drinking cups, &c 177
A curious drinking glass 17S
How to quicksilver the inside of glass globes, sor as to make
them look like looking-glass ib.
The art of painting upon glass 179
Necessary observations in the baking of glass, or burning-in the colours, after it is painted .- 180
For a carnation colour 182
Of black colours ib.
A brown colour 183
A reJ colour ib.
A blue colour ib.
Another blue olour .
A green colour • »* — fine yellow paint for glass ib. — pale yellow 185 How to "deaden the glass, and fit it to paint upon ib. Some general observations on the management of painting
and baking of glass -. 186 A particular way to paint upon a drinking glass ib. — fine gilding for gla<s ib. To write or draw upon glass 187 The art of glazing mid painting on fine earthen ware, com¬
monly called Delft ware ibi
How to prepare the clay for Delft ware 188 To prepare a white glazing ib.
The Rotterdam line shining white ib. Another fine white for earthen ware 189 ■ white ib.
Saltzburg white ib.
To lay a ground upon earthen ware, on which the white
glass will spread the better ib.
The right Dutch mastirat for white porcelain ib.
common ware is thus glazed 190 Colours for potter's glaze-work , ib. A fine yellow ib. citron colour 191
— green colour ib.
— blue colour ib.
— brown colour l$3
— flesh colour ib.
— purple brown ib.
An iron grev ib.
A black " , ib.
— brown on white 193
— fine red ib.
To glaze with Venice glass ib.
A green ib.
— yellow ib¬— giod yellow J94
— fine blue glass to paint with ib.
— brown ib.
— liver colour ,.. ib.
— sea green , ib. To lay gold, silver or copper on earthen ware, so as to re¬
semble either of these metals .-..,. 195
Several receipts for casting in Silver, Copper, Brass, Tin,
Steel, and other Metals; likewise in Wax, Plaster of Paris, Wood, Horn, &c. with the management of the respective Moulds 196
To prepare clay for making all sorts of moulds to cast gold, silver, and other metals in ..; ib.
— make moulds of clay to cast brass or other metals in 197 — prepare moulds, which need not to be heated, for cast¬
ing metal in IDS
The preparation of Mantua earth, for moulds ib.
A particular sort of mould, in which one may cast very fine
and sharp ib.
To impress basso relievo, or medals, in imitation of ivory 199
— medals and other things in basso relievo, on paper ib.
— cast vegetables in moulds peculiarly prepared for silver ... 200 Powders for moulds to cast all sorts of things in gold, in sil¬
ver, or in other metals 201
To cast vegetables and insects ib.
— prepare the mould 202
— cast vegetables, or insects, in another manner 203 figures, or medals, in sulphur 204
How to form and cast all sorts of small birds, frogs, fish, &c. ib. cast small shot 205
i images of plaster of Paris ; to cast wax, either solid or hollow ; al»o to form images in wax, and cast them afterwards in any metal, either solid or hollow ib.
To prepare the wax 207
r— cast medals and other things in basso relievo ib. Medals and figures in basso relievo, like jasper ib.
To cast fish, reptiles, fruit, or any kind of things, in pew¬ter plate, or dish ib.
figures in imitation of ivory 20V
mixture to cast figures in basso relievo ib.
To cast with marble colours in plaster 210
A sand in which one may cast things to the greatest nicety,
whether flat, or in basso relievo ib.
To make horn soft ib.
— cast horn into moulds 211
—s wood in moulds, as line as ivory, of fragrant
smell, and in several colours ib.
Mixtures for casting mirrors, and for casting other things ... 21.2.
For reflecting mirrors ih.-
Ant ther •••• 21.3
— sort of steel mixture for mirrors 214
Peter Shot's metallic mixture for minors .. 215
An uncommon way of preparing a mirror-mixture on brass 2 17 To cast iron 2 18
steel ib. iron as white as silver , 219
Another method ■ ib- How to take impressions with isinglass, from copper-plates 220
Of the colours fit to be mixed wita isinglass, for impressions of plates ib.
To cast plaster of Paris on copperplates 221 A mixture which may be used for making impressions of
any kind, and which will grow as hard as stone ib. To impress tigures in imitation of porcelain ., got ■
A collection of very Valuable Secrets for the use of Smiths.
Cutlers, Pewterers, Braziers, Book-binders, Joiners,
Turners, Japanners, &c 223
Choice experiments on iron and steel ib.
To harden sword-blades ib.
How to imitate the Damascan blades ib.
—— the Damascan blades are hardened 2J-t
To perfume a sword-blade, so as to retain always an odori¬
ferous Scent ib.
— harden steel and iron, which will resist and cut common iron • ib.
— temper steel, so as to cut iron like lead 225
Several other temperings of steel and iron ib.
A particular secret to harden armour 226
To temper steel or iron, so as to make excellent knives ib.
Another method ib.
To bring gravers and other tools to a softer temper ib.
.General rules to be observed in tempering of iron or steel .. 227 A curious method of hammering iron without fire, and mak¬
ing it red hot ib.
To soften iron or steei that is brittle 288 A particular powder and oil, to take oif rusts and spots from
iron, and to preserve it from rust for a long time ; very useful in armories 229
The powder ib.
• oil ib.
Another oil 230
To etch upon sword or knife-blades , ib. — prepare the etch-water ib.
— make the ground ib.
Another water to etch with ib.
To etch one hundred or more knife blades at once 231
b 2 Tfl
To make blue letters on sword-blades 231
-— harden fishing hooks , ib.
— gild upon iron or steel 232
A ground for gilding steel or iron ib.
Of lead and pewter 233
To make pewter hard ib.
Anothee method to make pewtee as white as silvee 234
To make tin, oe lead, ashes ib.
A gold coloue upon lead oe tin 235
— watee to be used in tinning all soets of metals, especially
To make tin which shall have the weight, haedness, sound,
and coloue of silvee ib»
flow easy 237
A paeticulae method to make tin eesemble silvee ib.
Soldee, to soldee tin with ib.
Anothee soldee, foe pewtee ib.
To make tin coat-buttons, in imitation of woeked buttons of
gold and silk 238
The aet of making tin plates, oe latten ib.
To gild upon tin, pewtee oe lead ... 241
Anothee method to gild pewtee, oe lead ib.
A method to gild with pewtee, oe with tin-foil ib.
To gild lead ib.
Some expeeiments eelating to coppee and beass 243
To make beass ib.
— melt coppee and beass, and give it a quick fusion ib.
— make beass that is beittle, and apt to ceack in the woek-
ing, malleable ib.
A soldee foe beass 24<<-
To peecipitate coppee feom aqua-foetis ib.
— make coppee as white as silvee ib.
Choice seceets foe book-bindees 240
To peepaee a lack vaenish foe book- bindees, foe Feench
Feench leathee foe binding of books ib.
To make white tables foe memoeandum books, to weite upon
with a silvee bodkin oe wiee 247
— peepaee paechment that eesembles jafpee oe maeble 248
A geeen teanspaeent paechment ib.
Foe a teanspaeent eed 249
. violet oe pueple coloue 250
black coloue ib.
To gild the edges of books ib.
— make eed Beasil ink 251
— peepaee Beasil ink without fiee ib.
— ■ in sticks ib.
oe exteact lake-coloues feom flowees 252
— eild papee ■ ib.
. • To
To make Indian ink
To prepare blue ink
— make good writing ink
For a small quantity of writing-ink
Ink for parchment
Another receipt for writing-ink
To make ink powder
— prepare red ink
To make letters, or other characters, of a gold or silver
of gold or silver embossed
A rare Secret to prepare gold the ancient way, to paint or-
To write golden letters with a pen
Fine red ink of vermilion
An artificial water for writing letters of secrecy
Another secret, to write a letter, white upon white, which
cannot be read but in fair water
The manner of marbling paper or books ..,
To silver paper, after the Chinese manner, without silver ...
— prepare ink, so that what is written therewith cannot be
read but in a dark place
— make line red paper
— prepare ink, for drawing of lines to write upon evenlv,
which may be rubbed out again
— write so that the letters may appear white, and the ground
of the parchment black
— make oil paper
Choice secrets for cabinet-makers, and turners
To prepare black colour for staining wood
— imitate ebony wood
Another, but more costly, method
An excellent secret to dye wood of any colour
To dye wood of red colour
Another red for dying wood
v D r *
To etch figures upon wood
— marble upon wood
gold, silver, or'copper-colour, on wood
To colour wood of walnut-tree colour
— stain wood of mie green
"red colour, for wood
violet colour, for wood
To adorn wood with ornaments of silver or tin
— emboss, or trace all manner of ornaments on gilded
smooth pannel, the gold being laid over with black, or
any other colour
— do this upon blue ground
Var et es of glues and cements, for jo n ng wood, stone, glas-s, and meta s •. 272
An excellent glue for wood, stone, glass, and metals b. A good stone glue, or cement for grotto-work 273 A wood glue, wh ch stands water b. Another hne glue „• 274 — extraord nary glue b.
A good water-cement b.
Stone-glue, wherewith you may glue ei ther stone or glass ... ibi
An exceed ng f ne cement to mend broken ch na, or glasses 275 A cement for broken glasses e ib.
A lute or cemente for cracksin glasses used for chemical pre-
parationse which will stand the lire ib.
To join broken amber e. 276
An excellent glue or cement to mix with stonee glasse mar-
blee &c. in order to make utensilse imagese and other things therewith ib.
Another cemente which dries quickly ib.
Good glue-sticks } or spittle gluee tit for book-binders 277
A water cemente which grows the harder for being in water ib. A cement as hard as iron ib.
Several curious secrets relating to ivorye bonee and horn ib.
To whiten ivory that is become red or yellow ib.
Another method to whiten green ivory 278
Mo imitate marble upon ivory ib.
— stain ivory of a fine green ib.
— d}e ivorye or bonee of a fine coral red 27i
— stain ivorye or bonee of a black colour ib.
— dye bones of a green colour ib.
or ivorye the colour of an emerald 280
rede bluee or any other colour ib.
— make horn soft ib.
To prepare horn leaves in imitation of tortoise-shell 281
Another method to counterfeit tortoise-shell on horn ib.
To solder horn togethere after it has been lined with proper
foils or colours 282
i— dye horn of a green colour ib.
-J red colour 2S3
— stain horn of a brown colour ib.
■— dye horn of a blue colour ib.
Of varnishinge or japanning on woode &c ib.
A white varnish ib.
Another varnish iit to mix with red or dark colourse and to
japan the work 28J
Another lac varnish ib»
A white or clear lac varnish ib.
A fine varnish for bluee and other colourse which will make
them brighte like looking-glass 2SS
A Chinese varnish for all sorts of colours 287
How to varnish chairs, tables, and other furniture, to imi¬
tate tortoise-shell; so as not to be defaced by oil or
spirituous liquors >b.
Avery fine Indian varnish - 288
To japan with gold, glass, or any other metallic spangles ... 289 A very fine varnish for a violin ib. — choice varnish which cannot be hurt by wet 290 — good varnish for paintings
— fine marbling on wood, or japanning ib.
gold varnish, wherewith you may gild any silvered
or tinned articles, with such lustre as done with gold 231
Of coral work 298
To make red coral branches, for the embellishment of grottos ib.
The art of preparing Colours for Painters with several me¬thods of Gilding, &c 294
Of blue colours ib.
To make, or prepare, ultramarine ib.
Another method, less troublesome 290' To prepare curious blue colour, little inferior to ultrama¬
rine, from blue smalt ib. from silver ib.
Another method 297 Anot her ib. To prepare blue colour from verdigrise ib. Another method 298 To prepare blue Tornisel, or Turnsol, beautiful colour ib.
blue of egg-shells 299
■, OCT . .
To make Venetian sky-blue ib.
Prussian blue ib.
Of several red colours 300
Lake, or laque ib.
To extract lake from scarlet wool 301
— make fine vermilion 302
How to purify vermilion 303
To make fine purple colour ib.
Colours extracted from Howers, &c 304 How to extract yellow, blue, violet, and other colours ib. Kunkel's method of extracting the colours from flowers, &c. 305 Of yellow colours 306 '["rue Naples' yellow ib. Masticot, or massicot ib. Orange colour ib.
Of green colours 306
How to make good verdigrise ib.
— —easier method to make verdigrise ib. To make line verdigrise for dyers 30S
Fine verdigrise for painters ib.
How to make sap-green 309
Another finer sap-green ib.
To prepare a fine green colour 310
A good and cheap green ib.
Of white colours 311
To make fine white lead ib,
Another method to make white lead ib.
of preparing white lead 312
Nottingham white ib.
To prepare another white colour ib.
A good white colour 313
A fine white colour for painting in miniature ib.
How to refine white lead ib.
1 prepare egg shells, for a white colour 314 White for water-colours, fit for paper-stainers, &c ib.
Of several black colours 315
To burn lamp-black, in order to make it finer, and of a bet¬ter colour ib.
How to make a finer lamp-black than is ordinarily sold in colour shops ib.
To make a black of trotter-bones ib. ivory-black ib.
Another method to burn ivory either black or white 316
A cherry-stone black ib.
To make Indian ink ib.
a fine ink-powder, to write or draw with ib.
Several methods of gilding 317
A particular way of gilding; in the open air, where leaf- gold cannot be managed, on account of the wind ib.
How to prepare the size for gilding in burnished gold ib.
gild in burnish upon wood, picture-frames, or any
other sort of work ib. ;— prepare the Nurimberg metallic powder, which
gives a beautiful lustre, when strewed upon writing, or
■ bronze images of plaster of Paris 319 To spot a white horse with black spot? ib. How to dapple ahorse — M 3~0
Several Choice Curiosities f 32j| A particular method to furnish a iish-poud with variety offish ib. To illuminate an apartment with various beautiful colours ... 322
Arbor Diana;, or the philosophical tree ib.
Another method ib.
much shorter 323
• less fallible ib. To preserve tilings from corruption 324<
The preparation of the spirit or oil of salt, a preserver of
things from corruption, and a great restorer and pre¬server of health i ib. A regeneration of coral 525
To make phosphorus 326
Another method to prepare phosphorus ib.
process for making phosphorus 327
■ luminous matter 328 To prepare a room, or closet, in such a manner that any one,
entering with a lighted candle, will think himself sur¬rounded by fire ib.
luminous stone 329 The preparation of pyrophorus ib.
a species of pyrophorus 330
How to prepare thunder powder ib.
To prepare a stone, which being wetted, produces lire 331 — represent the four elements in a glass phial ib. An elementary world in a phial 332 To ornament a room with a continually moving picture ib.
— make microscopes to great perfection 333 How to extract the quintessence of roses ib. Ansther method to extract the quintessence of any vege
tables 335 How to extract oil from herbs, flowers or seeds ib. A curious secret to distil herbs, so that the water will retain
both their colour and taste 336 To make vinegar of wine ib.
Several Secrets relating to Marble 337
Artificial marble ib.
Stained marble 338
A more expeditious process 339
How to prepare two colours, of gold and silver, to stain marble that is white, and paint upon it : which will pe¬netrate into the stone, so as to bear polishing 340
To imitate marble 341
-ft paint on wood in imitation of marble ib. — imitate, and counterfeit, agate 342
— imitate jasper ib.
How to clean alabaster, or white marble 343
To stain alabaster-images of all sorts of colours ib. — imitate marble, in sulphur ib.
■ prophyry, on a glass 344 How tomake fret-work ceilings 345
How to perform it skilfully ib.
’. • . . >»
Plain instructions fof Painting in Water-colours ; and an in*- troduction to the Art of Drawing in Perfpective 34i
Of the colours generally used in the art ib. To paint or colour a clear sky 350
-1— lay a ground on the walls of chambers, halls, &c 351
Of carnation or flesh-colour ib.
How to paint or colour cattle 354
Of birds 355
— fruit 356
— flowers 357
■— metals 353
A short introduction to the art of drawing in perspective ... 359
To raise a perpendicular line 360 — divide a given line into any number of equal parts ib.
Of the visual rays 361
-— point of sight, the base, the point of distance and the point accidental ib.
direct, or front 363
The oblique point of sight ib.
Of the diagonals and their sections ib.
Deep sinking in drawing of perspective 364
Of elevationin perspective, or scenography ib.
Of Cosmetics, Odoriferous-waters, Oils, &c. ., .,..,, 368
How to beautify the skin ib* Another ib. A fine water for beautifying the face M. 369 An odoriferous water ib.
To prepare the cloth of the Levant, for ladies to colour
their faces with ib.
To prepare oil of Benjamin, or benzoin 370
Oil of roses 371
Queen of Hungary's water ib.
To make balls for taking out spots of oil or grease 372 — prepare a leather strap ... i!>.
— make the hair grow 373
A liniment, for the same purpose ib.
— compound oil, for the same ib.
— remedy for corns , 374
An excellent tooth-powder . ib.
Another dentifrice ib.
Imperial water 375
Venetian water, to clear a sun-burnt complexion ib.
To preserve flowers ib.
A liniment to destroy vermin 37<>
— fine varnish for the skin ib.
— remedy for whitloes ib.
Fine perfumed powder, for the hair > 377. Almond paste, for the skin ib.
Cold cream, for the complexion ib.
Lip salve 378
White pomatum ib.
A pomatum to remove wrinkles . jb. — for the skin ib.
Method of scenting pomatum 37.0
Common scented powder ib.
For the eyes ib.
Balls to take out spots of oil or grease ib.
Cosmetic lotion, resembling the celebrated Gowland's lotion
in its effects, smell, and properties 380
Of dying Silk, Worsted, Cotton, &c. of various colours
How to dye silk, or worsted, of a fine carnation colour
Another method to dye silk of a crimson red 382
General observations in dying crimson, scarlet, or purple... 383
How to dissolve pewter, for an article called " Djer's
aqua fortis" ib.
To dye a crimson with archil 3&4
violet colour ib.
—— — worsted, stuff, or yarn of a crimson colour ib.
Another method 385
for silk : ib.
■ line carnation ib.
A carnation, for woollen 386
To dye a carnation, on silk, or cotton ib.
Another method 387
f- method ».. ib.
To dye yarn, or linen, of a lasting violet colour ib.
How to prepare, or set, a blue vat, for dying 388
Another direction how to set a blue vat ; together with se-
veral observations in the management, both for silk and
Another method, for woollen 390
To dye silk of a straw yellow , ib.-
Another method 391
Of dying silk, &c. of different green colours ib.
A fine green for dying silk ib.
How to dye linen of a green colour 392
To dye yarn of a yellow colour ib.
— dye green yarn, or linen, black 393
— dye silk an orange colour ib.
Another orangecolour ib.
A fine brimstone yellow for worsted 394
•—. lemon colour ib.
To dye an olive colour ib.
— dve a gold colour ib.
The t)utch manner of dying scarlet 395
General observations for dying cloth of a red or scarlet co- ib.
To prepare the cloth for dying of scarlet 396
■— dye cloth of a common red ib.
Another method ib.
To dve a brown colour 3L'7
A nutmeg colour, on stuffs ib.
How to make flax soft and mellow 398
An excellent water for taking out spots in cloth, stuff, &c. ... i!>.
To dye woollen stuffs of a black colour ib.
— d'ye linen of a black colour 3'39
— dye woollen of a good black ib.
Another black colour for woollen ib.
: fur plush 400
To dye silk of a good black ib.
Another manner for dying silk " 401
To dye a brown-red colour either on silk or worsted 402
Of madder, and its use in dying of silk, worsted, cotton, &c. ib. Concerning the dying with madder 404
To dye silk of a madder colour 405
Another method ib.
Of cochineal, and its usefulness in dying 406
Of Kermes, and its use in dying ib.
Of indigo 407
Orleans' yellow ib.
Gall-nuts, or galls 409
Stenography; or, the Art ofShort-hand Writing 409
The universal regulator of work and workmen 410
Short-hand writing ib.
Miscellaneous. — Of Snuff-making 414 How to reduce tobacco into powder 417
>— purge snuff, and prepare it for admitting of odours ... ib. perfume snuff with flowers 418
Another way to do the same ib. method 419
Snuff of Mille-fleur ib.
after the method practised at Rome ib.
The snuff with the odour of civet , *. 420
Amber- snuff ib.
Snuff, Malthese fashion ib.
The true Malthese method of preparing snuff ib.
— Spanish method of preparing perfumed snuff ... 421 To give a red or yellow colour to snuff ib.
Secrets entertaining and useful 422
To whiten wax ib.
Another way of whitening wax, in large manufactories 423
How to multiply wax 424
To make mutton-suet candles, in imitation of wax candles 425
«— make soap , ib.
— prevent any thing from burning in the fire 4 Jo
I'o prevent burning one's fingers in melted lead 4-2G
Afire which Cannot be extinguished by water ib.
I'o prevent the oil of a lamp from smoking 427
Another receipt for the same purpose ib. J'o make an incombustible wick ib.
A stone which is inflammable with water ib. Secrets relative to wine 428
To make wine to have the taste and flavour of French muscat ib: « the Vin-doux ib.
■ Vin-bourru, of an excellent taste ib.
— - imitate Malvoisie ib¬— change red wine into white, and white into red 429 — prevent wine from fusting, otherwise tasting of the cask,
and to give it both a taste and flavour quite agreeable ... ib. — make a vine produce sweet wine ib.
■ a sweet wine of a very agreeable flavour, and be¬sides very wholesome ib.
To clarify, in two days, new wine when muddy 430
— make the wine keep mout, or unfermented, for twelve months , ib.
■ wine turn black ib. — clarify wine which is turned '. ib — correct a bad flavour in wine 431 — prevent wine from spoiling and turning ib.
thunder and lightning from hurting wine ib.
wine from corrupting ib.
— restore a wine turned sour or sharp ib. — corrupted and glairy ib.
prevent wine from growing sour, and turning into vi¬negar , 432
make a new wine taste m an old wine ib. restore a wine turned ib.
fusted, or tasting of the cask ib.
— prevent wine from pricking ib.
— make wine keep 433
— clarify wine easily ib.
— prevent wine from turning ib.
.— correct a musty taste in wine ib.
Another method ib.
To correct a sour, or bitter taste in wine 434
— restore spoiled wine ib.
— sweeten a tart wine ib.
Another way ib.
To prevent "tartness in wine ib.
-— heighten a wine inliquor, and give it an agreeable flavour 435 — give wine a most agreeable flavour ib.
How to find out whether or not there be water mixed in a cask of wine ib.
To separate the water from wine ib.
— ungrease wine in less than twenty-four hours 436 To