162 OF THE SUBSTANCES
Of the manner of compounding and mixing the colours, with their proper vehicles for each kind of painting.
SECT. I. Of the colours proper to be ufed with oils, and the manner of com- pounding and mixing them with the oils and dryers.
THE colours proper to be ufed m oil, for red, are, vermilion, native cinnabar, lake, fearlet oker, common Indian red, terra de Siena Terra de Siena burnt, (and mixt with white), red oker,
Spanilh brown, Venetian red and red lead :— for blue, ultramarine, Pruffian blue, ultramarine alhes, verditer, indico, and fmalt;—for yellow, King’s yellow,/, Naples yellow, yellow oker, Dutch pink, light pink, mafticot, common or- piment, terra de Siena, unburnt and mixed with white, and turpeth mineral;—for green, terra verte, verdigrife, diltilled verdigrife, or chryftals of verdigrife, and Prullian green;—for purple true Indian red ;—for brown, burnt terra de Siena (unmixed with white), brown pink, brown oker, lunbre, and afphaltum for white, whits Hake, and white lead for black, lamp black, ivory black, and blue black: thefe are all the colours which are at prefent in ufe for oil painting in this country ; and when they are perfect in their kinds are fully fufficient to answer every purpofe. The immediate preparation of them, and the manner of compounding them with the oils and dfyers may be managed thus.
Okers of every kind, as alfo all the earthy sand metallic bodies, in which are included ultramarine and its allies, ought to be well levigated by a good Hone and muller, with water; and wafhed over, before they be mixed with tlxe oils, when they are intended for more delicate purpofes: and lake, brown pink and pruffian blue, which being of a gummy or glutinous nature, would again acquire a coufion if levigated in water, may be ground an impalpable powder by adding fpirit of wine to them inftead of the water, in which Hate they will then continue when they again become dry; and be much more eafily and thotoughly commixed with the oils. Lamp black demands no preparation; nor does the afphaltum require to be commixed with oil; but with fpirit of turpentine to thin it, if it be too thick a confidence to work with the Pencil.
In levigating lake or any of the pinks, as , aUoKing’s yellow, Naples yellow,(or verdigrife, "dth water or fpirit of wine, great care mulk be taken not to ufe a knife or other iron implement ; which would greatly injure the co-lours. Inftead of fuch knife, a thin piece of horn may be employed to take the colours off from the ftone, or to fcrape them together as they are grinding: and caution lhould likewift be ufed with regard. to the boards on which they are dried j and the place where they are repolited during the drying: for the fun or dull will be very apt to deprave fbme of them in this date, if they be not well kept out.
The pigments being thus duly prepared majr be ground with the oils, either on a ftone ot muTler, when they are wanted in greater quan* titles j or are intended to be kept; or by'the pallet-knife, oh the pallet, where they aré haai mediately to be ufed: but they fhould bé per* feótly mixed j or the oil will be apt to Separate, and the colours fail of their due bright-* hefs and effedh For convenience the colours defigned for the nicer kinds of painting, after they are ground With the oil, are put into pieces of bladders; and tied into a kind of ball j in which ftate fuch as be perfect will continue good a long time j and the bladder being prickt and fqueezed, the colour is forced out by fmall quantities, as is required for ufe.
For coarfer work, the colours demanded in great quantity are ground by hand or horfe- mills with the oil; and the others on a ftone with a muller. After which, they are put in potsj and mixed there with oil of turpentine and drying oil, according to thé particular pur- pofes to which they are employed.
Vermilion, Lake, Pruflian blue, brown pink, King’s yellow, and fometimes vermilion, are apt to be backward in drying; and require, therefore, to be mixed with oil mat is old and well dilpofed to dry; and where brightnefs is requifite, the nut: or poppy oil fhould be ufed with oil of turpentine': but where the brightnefs is of lefs moment, old linfeed oil with a third of drying oil, and the fame proportion of oil of turpen- . tine, may be lubftituted. But the proportion of thefe, and all dryers, mull be adequated to the occafion, as difcretion may dictate, according to the quicker or flower difpolition of die pigments ufed and the time that may be conveniently allowed for them to dry. Flake White fhould be alfb ufed with nut or poppy oil only; and to thefe oils many add white vitriol and fugar of lead, as well as the oil of turpentine, when they are to be ufed with this qr other pigments that are too flow in drying; but the effedfc of thole fubftances, when ufed in this manner, is very dubious, as I have ob- ferved before.